There are five main layers to the cornea.
Corneal Endothelial Cell Count
The cornea is examined during the slit lamp examination, including the inside layer, called the endothelial layer. However, in addition to direct slit-lamp visualization of the endothelium, the Lehigh Valley Center for Sight ophthalmologist also has access to specular microscopes that enable a magnified, direct view of the endothelium.
The endothelial layer can be the center of different diseases, like Fuch’s Corneal dystrophy. As individuals age, the cell count declines. The endothelium’s chief function is to remove fluid from the center of the corneal, the stroma, allowing the cornea to remain clear.
Certain diseases that damage the corneal endothelium, such as Fuchs’ corneal dystrophy, lead to endothelial changes such as guttae and eventually lead to corneal edema. This can be monitored with the Center for Sight’s specular microscope.